English

Grammar

A series of worksheets to help students understand the basics of English grammar.

By Chris Moynham

Grammar

Grammar refers to the features and structures of language. In the case of English grammar it refers to the features of the English language. It includes the properties of words and how they are put together to form sentences.

Words are divided into several groups:

Nouns: People or things.

Nouns can be divided into 4 groups:
• Common nouns; things
• Proper nouns; names
• Collective nouns; groups
• Abstract nouns; feelings

Verbs: Action or doing words.

Verbs can be divided into 3 groups.
• Action verbs; (describe what a person or thing does)
• Linking verbs: (links the beginning of a sentence with the end)
• Auxiliary (helping) verbs: (used with other verbs)

Adjectives: Modify (describe) nouns.

Adverbs: Modify (describe) verbs. Sometimes used to modify adjectives or other adverbs.

Conjunction: Joins words or one part of a sentence with another.

Pronoun: Used instead of a noun to avoid repetition.

Preposition: Relates one thing to another.

Articles: Definite article (the) or indefinite article (a or an) often used before a noun.

Phrase: Group of words expressing a single idea but without a subject or a verb.

Clause: Group of words containing a verb and its subject.

Sentence: A group of words used to convey a message.

The general construction for English sentences is: subject --> verb --> object

The verb and object make up the predicate of the sentence.
The subject tells us who or what the sentence is about while the predicate tells us what the subject is or does.

Nouns

A noun is a person, place, thing or feeling.
There are four groups of nouns.
(i) Common nouns: things of the same kind e.g. dog, cup, man, week, book, ………
(ii) Proper nouns: people or things that are known by name e.g. Mary, George, Fido, Wednesday, Australia, …………. Proper nouns begin with a capital.
(iii) Collective nouns: name given to a collection of people or things e.g. flock, group, set, team, staff, ………..
(iv) Abstract nouns: names of feelings and ideas e.g. freedom, justice, compassion, …

Nouns can be singular (one) or plural (two or more).
Most singular nouns are turned into the plural by adding “s” at the end. e.g. dog/dogs stick/sticks computer/computers car/cars

However, just to confuse you there are many exceptions.
Nouns that end in “y” are often made plural by dropping the “y” and adding “ies” e.g. baby/babies fly/flies jury/juries but there are exceptions e.g. boy/boys toy/toys
Nouns that end in “f” or “fe” are generally made plural by changing the “f” to a “v” and adding “s”. e.g. wife/wives knife/knives elf/elves shelf/shelves
Many other nouns have plurals that apply to only one or a few words e.g. tooth/teeth foot/feet (note: the plural of boot is boots, not beet), mouse/mice man/men

Exercise 1: Write the plural form of the nouns below:
Nouns
Singular         Plural         Singular         Plural        
bird  year 
life  house 
cat   sty  
plate  half 
joy  army 

Exercise 2: The sentences below contain nouns that have been underlined. In the spaces following the nouns state whether the nouns are common, proper, collective or abstract.

(i) The farmer ……………had a herd …………of cows ………….
(ii) Paul ……… wore a new suit …………
(iii) Carol ………went to the beach ……….. on Sunday ………….
(iv) The choir …….. sang in the concert hall ………...
(v) January ……….. is the hottest month ………. of the year.......... in Australia ………..
(vi) War …….. causes a lot of pain ………. and suffering …………
(vii) Every cloud ………… has a silver lining …………..
(viii) Silver ………and gold ……… are precious metals ………...
(ix) Bob ……… gave his wife ………. a beautiful red rose ………..
(x) You could see the anger ……….. in his eyes...........
(xi) Rose ………..sat next to me in the bus …………
(xii) Julie ……… was the youngest girl ……… in the class ………..

Exercise 3: A person’s job or profession is a noun. Write the names of ten jobs or professions.
…………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………

Exercise 4. Place the following collective nouns in their correct space in the table below: fleet, school, pride, herd, bunch, group

Common Collective  Common Collective
fish    lion 
cow     ship 
person    flower 

Answers:

Exercise 1:

Singular         Plural         Singular         Plural        
birdbirds; yearyears
lifelives househouses
cat cats sty sties
plateplates halfhalves
joyjoys armyarmies

Exercise 2:
(i) The farmer (common) had a herd (collective) of cows. (common)
(ii) Paul (proper) wore a new suit. (collective)
(iii) Carol (proper) went to the beach (common) on Sunday. (proper)
(iv) The choir (collective) sang in the concert hall. (common)
(v) January (proper) is the hottest month (common) of the year (common) in Australia. (proper)
(vi) War (common) causes a lot of pain (abstract) and suffering. (abstract)
(vii) Every cloud (common) has a silver lining. (common)
(viii) Silver (common) and gold (common) are precious metals. (common)
(ix) Bob (proper) gave his wife (common) a beautiful red rose. (common)
(x) You could see the anger (abstract) in his eyes.(common)
(xi) Rose (proper) sat next to me in the bus. (common)
(xii) Julie (proper) was the youngest girl (common) in the class. (collective)

Exercise 3:
Answers will vary but could include
Architect, Accountant, Builder, Carpenter, Cleaner, Dentist, Doctor, Driver, Electrician, Engineer, Mechanic, Nurse, Pilot, Plumber, Police Officer, Reporter, Secretary, Shop Assistant, Teacher, Vet, ………………

Exercise 4
Common Collective  Common Collective
fish school  lion pride
cow herd   ship fleet
person group  flowerbunch

Countable and Uncountable Nouns.

A noun is a person, place or thing.
A countable noun is simply a noun that can be counted e.g. pencils, shirts, refrigerators.
An uncountable noun is one that can’t be counted e.g. water, money, information.
Singular countable nouns are preceded by words such as “the” (definite article) or “a” or “an” (indefinite article) or my or this or your.
Plural countable nouns are quantified or used alone. They can not be used with the, a or an but can be used with possessive pronouns such as my, his, her or your.
e.g. I want an apple. I want apples. I want two apples. I want your apples.
Uncountable nouns can’t use “a” (indefinite article) or numbers.
e.g. I want money. Not I want a money or I want two moneys.
Dollars are countable, money is not.

Exercise 1: The noun in the following sentences is underlined. Complete the sentence by placing a suitable word or words in the space provided and state whether the noun is countable or uncountable.

1. It was raining so I took ………….. umbrella.

2. Children should drink ………….. milk.

3. Paul ate ………… bananas.

4. Chris wore ………… shirt.

5. ………… luggage is in the car.

6. George moved ……….. furniture to another room.

7. I was hungry so I ate …………. bread.

8. I read ……… newspaper.

9. During ……… storm ………. thunder frightened me.

10. Mary played ………... game on …………. computer.

Exercise 2: Place the word is or are in the following spaces.

1. That ………. good news.

2. The weather today ………. very pleasant.

3. Girls ……… quieter than boys.

4. Shorts ………. worn in hot weather.

Answers:
Exercise 1:
1. It was raining so I took an umbrella (countable).

2. Children should drink more milk (uncountable).

3. Paul ate three bananas (countable).

4. Chris wore a shirt (countable).

5. My luggage (uncountable) is in the car.

6. George moved his furniture (uncountable) to another room.

7. I was hungry so I ate some bread (uncountable).

8. I read a newspaper (countable).

9. During yesterday's storm (countable) the thunder (uncountable) frightened me.

10. Mary played a game (countable) on her computer (countable).

Exercise 2: Place the word is or are in the following spaces.

1. That is good news.

2. The weather today is very pleasant.

3. Girls are quieter than boys.

4. Shorts are worn in hot weather.

Pronouns

A pronoun is a word that is used instead of a noun.
Instead of saying: “Mary took Mary’s bag when Mary went to school.” we would normally say: “Mary took her bag when she went to school.”
In the above example “her” and “she” are pronouns used to replace the noun “Mary”.

There are five main types of pronouns.
Personal pronouns: These are substituted for a person or thing.
e.g. I will sit on a chair. Give it to him tomorrow. Put it in the cupboard.

Possessive pronouns: These denote ownership.
e.g. Bill ate his dinner. The dog hurt its paw. The students entered their classroom.

Demonstrative pronouns: These refer to specific people or things.
e.g. This is the book I was telling you about. There is the bus. That is a photo of Joe.

Interrogative pronouns: These are used when asking a question.
e.g. Who owns this purse? What is the time? Which colour do you prefer?

Indefinite pronouns: These refer to people or things in a general way.
e.g. Someone stole my wallet. There are none left. Many are called but few are chosen.

Exercise 1: Underline the pronouns in the following sentences.
1. The two boys ate their lunch.
2. Jeremy put his hand on my head.
3. Ross opened his schoolbag and took out his history book.
4. Whom do you wish to see?
5. Nobody wants to buy a car if it is unreliable.
6. The test was so easy that anybody could pass it.
7. When Angela collected her racquet she found that someone had broken it.
8. This is the boy I was talking about.
9. I will tidy my room after you have tidied your room.
10. I went to the beach early so that I could reserve our favourite spot.

Exercise 2: Insert a suitable pronoun into the following sentences.
1. Let ………. have a game of chess.
2. ……………. road leads to Slumsville?
3. The girl ………… lives down the street won lotto.
4. Trevor was the builder ……….. did the job.
5. Justine wore ……….. brightest blouse to work.
6. …………. is the correct answer?
7. Maureen and ……….. walked to the station.
8. George held the lantern while ………. mother chopped the wood.
9. “Why were ………. travelling so fast?” the policeman asked.
10. Jack and Jill said that ………… had fetched a pail of water.

Exercise 3: Classify the following pronouns as personal, possessive, demonstrative, interrogative or indefinite.
Pronoun             Type              Pronoun             Type            
hers     theirs 
I     some 
them     anybody  
these     those 
no-one     ours 
whose     me  
anyone     mine 
she     it  
your     everyone 
they     my  

Answers 1:
1. The two boys ate their lunch.
2. Jeremy put his hand on my head.
3. Ross opened his schoolbag and took out his history book.
4. Whom do you wish to see?
5. Nobody wants to buy a car if it is unreliable.
6. The test was so easy that anybody could pass it.
7. When Angela collected her racquet she found that someone had broken it.
8. This is the boy I was talking about.
9. I will tidy my room after you have tidied your room.
10. I went to the beach early so that I could reserve our favourite spot.

Answers 2:
1. Let us have a game of chess.
2. Which road leads to Slumsville?
3. The girl who lives down the street won lotto.
4. Trevor was the builder who did the job.
5. Justine wore her brightest blouse to work.
6. What is the correct answer?
7. Maureen and I walked to the station.
8. George held the lantern while his mother chopped the wood.
9. “Why were you travelling so fast?” the policeman asked.
10. Jack and Jill said that they had fetched a pail of water.

Answers 3:
Pronoun     Type      Pronoun     Type    
hers possessive  theirs possessive
I personal   some indefinite
them personal   anybody indefinite
these demonstrative  those demonstrative
no-one indefinite   ours possessive
whose interrogative   me personal
anyone indefinite   mine possessive
she personal   it personal
your possessive   everyone indefinite
they personal   my possessive

Verbs

A verb is a doing word; it describes what the subject of the sentence does.

There are three main types of verbs.

1. Action verbs.
Action verbs describe behaviour i.e. what a person or thing does.
e.g. Wendy walked to the shops.

2. Linking verbs.
Linking verbs link the start of the sentence to the end. Without the linking verb the sentence would not make any sense. They consist of existence words (am, is are ......) or words associated with our senses.
e.g. The dog is friendly.
Samson heard the news.

3. Auxiliary Verbs.
Auxiliary verbs are used with other verbs to make a complete verb.

Some verbs stand alone e.g. Bert polished his shoes.
Sometimes a second verb is used with the main verb e.g. Bert is polishing his shoes.
Such verbs are called auxiliary verbs.
Verbs with auxiliary verbs are called compound verbs.

Tense.
The tense of a verb indicates when the action or state takes place; past, present or future. An auxiliary verb is often used and the main verb changes its form.
e.g. past tense: I sat on the chair.
e.g. present tense: I am sitting on the chair.
e.g. future tense: I will sit on the chair.

Active and Passive Verbs.
When the person or thing carrying out the action comes before the verb, the verb is said to be active.
e.g. Walter wrote the essay.
The softball hit Elizabeth.
Frances painted the house.

When the person or thing carrying out the action comes after the verb, the verb is said to be passive.
e.g. The essay was written by Walter.
Elizabeth was hit by the softball.
The house was painted by Frances.

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs.

The word transitive comes from the Latin trans which means across. A transitive verb provides a link between the subject and the object.

Verbs that have an object are called transitive verbs.
e.g. The dog gnawed a bone.

Verbs that don’t have an object are called intransitive verbs.
e.g. Birds fly.

Sometimes a verb can be transitive or intransitive.
e.g. Bill is driving. (intransitive)
Bill is driving the car. (transitive)

All sentences have a verb.
In a few cases, such as a command, the verb can be the only word in the sentence
e.g. “Stop.” or “Look.”

Exercise: Underline the action verbs in the following sentences.

1. Eleanor repaired the fence.
2. Beryl removed her shoes.
3. The horse jumped over the hurdle.
4. Claude wrote his rιsumι on his computer.
5. Andrew photographed his sister at the party.
6. Jake built a shed in his backyard.
7. Jenny cooked a lovely meal.
8. Ursula studied chapter 7 in her English book.
9. Sandra watched two movies yesterday afternoon.
10. Zach carried his desk upstairs.
11. Sean read “Hamlet” for his English course.
12. Amy played a game of tennis against Emma.

Answers:
1. Eleanor repaired the fence.
2. Beryl removed her shoes.
3. The horse jumped over the hurdle.
4. Claude wrote his rιsumι on his computer.
5. Andrew photographed his sister at the party.
6. Jake built a shed in his backyard.
7. Jenny cooked a lovely meal.
8. Ursula studied chapter 7 in her English book.
9. Sandra watched two movies yesterday afternoon.
10. Zach carried his desk upstairs.
11. Sean read “Hamlet” for his English course.
12. Amy played a game of tennis against Emma.

Sentences

A sentence is a group of words used to convey a message.
A sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop, question mark or exclamation mark.

A typical sentence has a subject, verb and object.

Subject --> Verb --> Object

The subject is the person or thing that carries out the action.
The verb describes the action.
The object refers to what is involved in the action.
The verb and object make up the predicate of the sentence.
e.g. The boy threw the ball.
Subject: The boy
Verb: threw
Object: the ball

Exercise: Break up the following sentences into subject, verb and object and write them in the appropriate spaces in the table below.

Sentence     Subject         Verb         Object    
Mario ate his dinner.   
The girl watched television.   
The book is on the table.    
He drank a glass of wine.    
The dog dug a hole.    
The red car has blue seats.    
The letter came yesterday.    
Your socks are in the top drawer.    
Carol phoned Teresa.    
A tall tree grew in the back yard.    

Answers
Sentence SubjectVerb Object
Mario ate his dinner. Mario ate his dinner
The girl watched television. The girl watchedtelevision
The book is on the table. The bookis on the table
He drank a glass of wine. He drank a glass of wine
The dog dug a hole. The dog dug a hole
The red car has blue seats. The red carhas blue seats
The letter came yesterday. The letter came yesterday
Your socks are in the top drawer. Your socks are in the top drawer
Carol phoned Teresa. Carol phoned Teresa
A tall tree grew in the back yard. A tall tree grew in the back yard

Tense of Verbs

Exercise: Insert the past, present and future form of the give verbs into the sentences below:

1. verb: wash
Past: I ………….. the car.
Present: I ………….. the car.
Future: I ………….. the car.

2. verb: wear
Past: The boy ………….. glasses.
Present: The boy ………….. glasses.
Future: The boy ………….. glasses.

3. verb: eat
Past: Joe ………….. his dinner.
Present: Joe ………….. his dinner.
Future: Joe ………….. his dinner.

4. verb: is
Past: The table ………….. on the grass.
Present: The table ………….. on the grass.
Future: The table ………….. on the grass.

5. verb: play
Past: The girl ………….. in the park.
Present: The girl ………….. in the park.
Future: The girl ………….. in the park.

6. verb: run
Past: Mary ………….. along the beach.
Present: Mary ………….. along the beach.
Future: Mary ………….. along the beach.

7. verb: drink
Past: The man in the red shirt ………….. a cup of tea.
Present: The man in the red shirt ………….. a cup of tea.
Future: The man in the red shirt ………….. a cup of tea.

8. verb: walk
Past: The old lady ………….. to the shop.
Present: The old lady ………….. to the shop.
Future: The old lady ………….. to the shop.

9. verb: talk
Past: My aunty ………….. to me on the phone.
Present: My aunty ………….. to me on the phone.
Future: My aunty ………….. to me on the phone.
Answers over page:

Tense of Verbs..........answers

Exercise: Insert the past, present and future form of the give verbs into the sentences below:

1. verb: wash
Past: I washed the car.
Present: I am washing the car.
Future: I will wash the car.

2. verb: wear
Past: The boy wore glasses.
Present: The boy is wearing glasses.
Future: The boy will wear glasses.

3. verb: eat
Past: Joe ate his dinner.
Present: Joe is eating his dinner.
Future: Joe will eat his dinner.

4. verb: is
Past: The table was on the grass.
Present: The table is on the grass.
Future: The table will be on the grass.

5. verb: play
Past: The girl played in the park.
Present: The girl is playing in the park.
Future: The girl will play in the park.

6. verb: run
Past: Mary ran along the beach.
Present: Mary is running along the beach.
Future: Mary will run along the beach.

7. verb: drink
Past: The man in the red shirt drank a cup of tea.
Present: The man in the red shirt is drinking a cup of tea.
Future: The man in the red shirt will drink a cup of tea.

8. verb: walk
Past: The old lady walked to the shop.
Present: The old lady is walking to the shop.
Future: The old lady will walk to the shop.

9. verb: talk
Past: My aunty talked to me on the phone.
Present: My aunty is talking to me on the phone.
Future: My aunty will talk to me on the phone.

Active and Passive Verbs

Rewrite the following sentences in the passive form:

1. Active: Fred ate the apple.

Passive: …………………………………………………………………
2. Active: Andrea gave a speech.

Passive: …………………………………………………………………
3. Active: Bert polished the shoes.

Passive: …………………………………………………………………
4. Active: The dog broke the fence.

Passive: …………………………………………………………………
5. Active: The girl with the pony tail won the raffle.

Passive: …………………………………………………………………

Rewrite the following sentences in the active form:

1. Passive: The customer was served by Jill.

Active: …………………………………………………………………..
2. Passive: The meal was cooked by the new chef.

Active: …………………………………………………………………..
3. Passive: The new town hall was opened by the mayor.

Active: …………………………………………………………………..
4. Passive: The car is being driven by an old man.

Active: …………………………………………………………………..
5. Passive: The lights will be left on by the caretaker.

Active: …………………………………………………………………..
Answers over page:

Active and Passive Verbs……….Answers

Rewrite the following sentences in the passive form:

1. Active: Fred ate the apple.
Passive: The apple was eaten by Fred.
2. Active: Andrea gave a speech.
Passive: A speech was given by Andrea.
3. Active: Bert polished the shoes.
Passive: The shoes were polished by Bert.
4. Active: The dog broke the fence.
Passive: The fence was broken by the dog.
5. Active: The girl with the pony tail won the raffle.
Passive: The raffle was won by the girl with the pony tail.

Rewrite the following sentences in the active form:

1. Passive: The customer was served by Jill.
Active: Jill served the customer.
2. Passive: The meal was cooked by the new chef.
Active: The new chef cooked the meal.
3. Passive: The new town hall was opened by the mayor.
Active: The mayor opened the new town hall.
4. Passive: The car is being driven by an old man.
Active: An old man is driving the car.
5. Passive: The lights will be left on by the caretaker.
Active: The caretaker will leave the lights on.

Conjunctions

Conjunctions are joining words; they are used to join two nouns, clauses or phrases of a sentence.
The two most common conjunctions are “and” and “but”.
E.g. I went to the movies and bought popcorn.
I went to the movies but didn’t buy popcorn.
Other common conjunctions are; because, or, nor, yet, since, as, like, for, before, after, if, so, both,

Exercise 1: Underline the conjunctions in the following sentences.

1. We bought fish and chips.
2. John was going to go on a picnic but it rained.
3. We bought sandwiches for we had forgotten the hot food.
4. Mark did not go to the show because he had no money.
5. I enjoy drawing yet I don’t have a lot of talent.
6. I like neither broccoli nor cabbage.
7. I did not attend the movie as I had already seen it.
8. Sarah watched television after she had finished dinner.
9. I have seen the movies Toystory 1 and Toystory 2 but not Toystory 3.
10. I bought a kettle and a toaster but not a blender as I didn’t have enough money.

Answers 1:
1. We bought fish and chips.
2. John was going to go on a picnic but it rained.
3. We bought sandwiches for we had forgotten the hot food.
4. Mark did not go to the show because he had no money.
5. I enjoy drawing yet I don’t have a lot of talent.
6. I like neither broccoli nor cabbage.
7. I did not attend the movie as I had already seen it.
8. Sarah watched television after she had finished dinner.
9. I have seen the movies Toystory 1 and Toystory 2 but not Toystory 3.
10. I bought a kettle and a toaster but not a blender as I didn’t have enough money.

Exercise 2: Join the following sentences by using a different conjunction in each case.

1. Peter went to the shop. He bought a milkshake.

…………………………………………………………………………………..
2. Izabella didn’t go to the city. She missed the train.

…………………………………………………………………………………..
3. This is Kevin’s mobile phone. It is broken.

…………………………………………………………………………………..

Answers may vary but here are some suggestions:
1. Peter went to the shop and he bought a milkshake.
2. Izabella didn’t go to the city because she missed the train.
3. This is Kevin’s mobile phone but it is broken.

Conjunction Exercises

Exercise: Use a conjunction to join the following pairs of sentences.

1. I bought an apple. The apple had a grub in it.

…………………………………………………………………………………..
2. Jerry bought a house. The house has three bedrooms.

…………………………………………………………………………………..
3. Tania wore a hat. The hat had a wide brim.

…………………………………………………………………………………..
4. I would like a pie please. Please put sauce on the pie.

…………………………………………………………………………………..
5. Colin was carrying a bag. The bag seemed heavy.

…………………………………………………………………………………..
6. I didn’t go to the beach yesterday. It rained.

…………………………………………………………………………………..
7. Five competitors entered the egg and spoon race. Tony won.

…………………………………………………………………………………..
8. My car had a flat battery. I caught a bus.

…………………………………………………………………………………..
9. This is Chris’s desk. The desk is messy.

…………………………………………………………………………………..
10. The dog dug a hole. The dog buried a bone in it.

…………………………………………………………………………………..

Answers: Answers will vary but here are some suggestions:
1. I bought an apple but the apple had a grub in it.
2. Jerry bought a house and the house has three bedrooms.
3. Tania wore a hat and the hat had a wide brim.
4. I would like a pie please and please put sauce on the pie.
5. Colin was carrying a bag and the bag seemed heavy.
6. I didn’t go to the beach yesterday as it rained.
7. Five competitors entered the egg and spoon race and Tony won.
8. My car had a flat battery so I caught a bus.
9. This is Chris’s desk and the desk is messy.
10. The dog dug a hole and the dog buried a bone in it.
Note that the object of the first sentence often becomes the subject of the second sentence.

Adjectives

An adjective is a word that describes a noun. e.g. Harold drove a large truck.
Large is the adjective that describes the truck (noun).

Exercise 1: Circle the adjectives and underline the nouns that they describe in the sentences below.
1. It is a rainy day today.
2. The frisky kitten belongs to Elizabeth.
3. Jake read an interesting book.
4. There is nothing nicer than a cold drink on a hot day.
5. Minh bought a DVD of her favourite movie.
6. Simon bought a laptop computer.
7. Tom’s parents complained when he played loud music.
8. A small bird sat on David’s new car.
9. Six children attended the jazz concert.
10. May I have a sharp pencil and some drawing paper please.

Exercise 2: Place adjectives in the spaces provided in the sentences below.
1. Raymond ate a …………….orange.
2. …………… competitors entered the sack race.
3. Miriam played with the …………. cat.
4. Susan drove home in the …………… car.
5. Jordan was dazzled by the …………. light.
6. Gillian ate a ………….. meal of pasta and salad.
7. Dianne lived in a …………. house in a …………. street.
8. Richard’s wife wore a …………… dress.

Answers 1: Write the adjectives in bold and underline the nouns that they describe in the sentences below.
1. It is a rainy day today.
2. The frisky kitten belongs to Elizabeth.
3. Jake read an interesting book.
4. There is nothing nicer than a cold drink on a hot day.
5. Minh bought a DVD of her favourite movie.
6. Simon bought a laptop computer.
7. Tom’s parents complained when he played loud music.
8. A small bird sat on David’s new car.
9. Six children attended the jazz concert.
10. May I have a sharp pencil and some drawing paper please.

Answers 2: Answers will vary but here are some suggestions.
1. Raymond at a juicy orange.
2. Few competitors entered the sack race.
3. Miriam played with the frisky cat.
4. Susan drove home in the new car.
5. Jordan was dazzled by the bright light.
6. Gillian ate a tasty meal of pasta and salad.
7. Dianne lived in a large house in a quiet street.
8. Richard’s wife wore a floral dress.

Adjectives for Comparing

We often want to compare nouns, and adjectives can be used to do this.
If we want to compare two things we use the comparative form of the adjective.
Bob is taller than Bill.
The carnation is more beautiful than the daisy.
If we want to compare more than two things we use the superlative form of the adjective.
Jack is the tallest boy in his class.
The rose is the most beautiful flower in the vase.

Some adjectives add “er” for the comparative and “est” for the superlative while others add the word “more” before the adjective for the comparative and “most” before the adjective for the superlative.
A few adjectives have completely new words for the comparative and superlative e.g. good, better and best.

Be careful to only use one form of the comparative or superlative. Beware of double comparatives such as: Finding $2 is more better than finding $1. It may be better but “more better” is wrong.
Similarly you can have a worst enemy but not a most worst enemy.

Exercise: Complete the following table of the base adjective and its comparative and superlative form.

Base Adjective Comparative form Superlative form
Clean  
  Shorter  
    Smartest
Easy   
  More difficult  
    Most boring
Silly   
  Heavier  
    Most natural
Comfortable   

Answers:
Base Adjective Comparative form Superlative form
Clean Cleaner Cleanest
Short Shorter Shortest
Smart Smarter Smartest
Easy Easier Easiest
Difficult More difficult Most difficult
Boring More boring Most boring
Silly Sillier Silliest
Heavy Heavier Heaviest
Natural More natural Most natural
Comfortable More comfortable Most comfortable

Types of Adjectives

Adjectives can be divided into two main groups; opinion adjectives and descriptive adjectives.

Opinion adjectives describe a person’s opinion; what they think about something. They are subjective and rely on the speaker’s judgement e.g. beautiful and ugly. A painting that may be beautiful to one person may seem ugly to another.

Descriptive adjectives are more objective and do not involve value judgements e.g. square, red, wooden. However there some that are a little subjective such as at what age does a person or thing become old and how big is big?

Descriptive adjectives can be further divided into seven groups.
Size: e.g. big, small, tiny, huge, enormous, little, large,
Shape: e.g. square, round, rectangular, irregular,
Age: e.g. young, old, new, ancient, modern,
Colour: e.g. red, green, pinkish,
Origin: e.g. Aboriginal, Chinese, western, Martian,
Material: e.g. cotton, wooden, metal, gold-plated,
Purpose: e.g. running shoes, writing desk, ballot box, washing machine,

Order of Adjectives:

It is common to use more than one adjective to describe something e.g. a small, blue, Japanese car. In such cases the usual order of adjectives is: opinion, size, shape, age, colour, origin, material, purpose.

Exercise: Place an opinion adjective in the spaces in the sentences below:
1. He gave her a …………… rose.
2. Thank you for the …………… dinner.
3. Paul read an …………… book.
4. Fred sat on an …………... chair.
5. Anthony scored a …………… mark in his test.
6. Patrick is a …………... boy.
7. He died a ……..……. death.
8. Spot is a ………..…. dog.
9. It is a …………... day today.

Answers: The answers will vary but here are some suggestions:
1. He gave her a beautiful rose. Lovely, Delightful,
2. Thank you for the lovely dinner. Delicious, Beautiful,
3. Paul read an interesting book. Informative, Exciting,
4. Fred sat on an uncomfortable chair. Ugly, Excellent, Expensive 5. Anthony scored a disappointing mark in his test. Wonderful, Pleasing, 6. Patrick is a good boy. Typical, Naughty, Horrible,
7. He died a peaceful death. Painful, Lingering,
8. Spot is a friendly dog. Naughty, Beautiful, Wonderful, Noisy,
9. It is a lovely day today. Beautiful, Woeful, Terrible, Wonderful,

Order of Adjectives

It is common to use more than one adjective to describe something e.g. a small, blue, Japanese car. In such cases the usual order of adjectives is: opinion, size, shape, age, colour, origin, material, purpose.

Exercise: Arrange the adjectives shown in the correct order and insert them into the sentence.
1. Adjectives: red, long-stemmed, beautiful

He gave her a ………………………. ……………………….rose.
2. Adjectives: new, stainless-steel, washing, nice

Michael bought his wife a ………………………………………… machine.
3. Adjectives: brown, ugly, European, old

Giovanni drove an …………………………………………………..car.
4. Adjectives: leather, large, old, comfortable

Alfred sat in a ……………………………………………………. chair.
5. Adjectives: Swiss, sleeping, compact, new, feather

He slept in ………………………………………………………… bag.
6. Adjectives: A4, writing, white

May I have some ………………………………………. paper please?
7. Adjectives: home-cooked, huge, pasta, delicious

Robin ate a …………………………………………………….. meal.
8. Adjectives: pretty, French, cotton, new, floral

Margaret wore a ……………………………………………….. dress.
9. Adjectives: hardware, large, excellent, local

Keith bought his hammer at the …………………………………….. store.
10. Adjectives: enormous, stone, stunning, old

Charles lives in that ……………………………………………. mansion.

Answers:
1. He gave her a beautiful long-stemmed red rose.
2. Michael bought his wife a nice, new, stainless-steel washing machine.
3. Giovanni drove an ugly old brown European car.
4. Alfred sat in a comfortable large old leather chair.
5. He slept in compact, new, Swiss, feather, sleeping bag.
6. May I have some A4, white, writing paper please?
7. Robin ate a delicious, huge, home-cooked, pasta meal.
8. Margaret wore a pretty, new, floral, French, cotton dress.
9. Keith bought his hammer at the excellent, large, local, hardware store.
10. Charles lives in that stunning, enormous, old, stone mansion.

Definite and Indefinite Article

Nouns are often preceded by “a”, “an” or “the’.
“The” refers to a particular thing and is known as the definite article.
e.g. I am going to wash the car.
The word “the” implies we know which car we are talking about. It is a particular car.

The words “a” or “an” imply one of a group and are known as the indefinite article.
e.g. I want to buy a car.
We don’t know which car we are talking about. We won’t know until we have bought it.
If adjectives are used with the noun then the definite or indefinite article precedes the adjectives. e.g. the big red ball or a big red ball.
When the first letter of the noun (or adjectives preceding it) begins with a vowel (a, e, i, o or u) then “an” is used as the indefinite article. e.g. an orange, an instrument.
While “the” can be used with singular or plural nouns, “a” or “an” are only used with singular nouns. E.g. the child or the children or a child, but not a children.

Exercise: Write “the” “a” or “an” in the spaces below.

1. We should reorganise ……. kitchen cupboards.

2. Would you like ……. egg for breakfast?

3. There is ……. hole in my pocket.

4. He earns more money than ……. prime minister.

5. I will wash ……. dog this afternoon.

6. I write with ……. pencil.

7. It is handy to wear ……. apron to protect your clothes.

8. ……. weather today is fine.

9. There is ……. pothole in ……. road outside my house.

10. I like to sit in ……. comfortable chair and read ……. good book.

Answers:
1. We should reorganise the kitchen cupboards.
2. Would you like an egg for breakfast?
3. There is a hole in my pocket.
4. He earns more money than the prime minister.
5. I will wash the dog this afternoon.
6. I write with a pencil.
7. It is handy to wear an apron to protect your clothes.
8. The weather today is fine.
9. There is a pothole in the road outside my house.
10. I like to sit in a comfortable chair and read a good book.

Adverbs

An adverb describes a verb i.e. it tells us something about the verb. It tells how, when or where something happened.
e.g. The dog barked loudly. This tells us how the dog barked.
The dog barked yesterday. This tells us when the dog barked.
The dog barked nearby. This tells us where the dog barked.

Adverbs can also be used to modify adjectives or other adverbs.
e.g. The dog’s bark is really loud. Modifies the adjective; loud.
The dog barked really loudly. Modifies the adverb; loudly.

Exercise: Underline the adverbs in the following sentences.

1. Maria waited patiently for the bus.
2. The bus will come soon.
3. There is the book.
4. I usually catch a train to work.
5. Lewis nearly ran his fastest time.
6. Claudia is going to Japan tomorrow.
7. Tony, will you please come here.
8. Carefully read the next paragraph.
9. Sam ate his dinner really quickly.
10. I often see Robin at the supermarket.
11. He plays his music incredibly loudly.
12. It rained really heavily yesterday.
13. It was a particularly interesting book.
14. The boy finally arrived at school.
15. Einstein was exceptionally brilliant.
16. Pauline is very clever.
17. Now we will quickly check our answers.

Answers:
1. Maria waited patiently for the bus.
2. The bus will come soon.
3. There is the book.
4. I usually catch a train to work.
5. Lewis nearly ran his fastest time.
6. Claudia is going to Japan tomorrow.
7. Tony, will you please come here.
8. Carefully read the next paragraph.
9. Sam ate his dinner really quickly.
10. I often see Robin at the supermarket.
11. He plays his music incredibly loudly.
12. It rained really heavily yesterday.
13. It was a particularly interesting book.
14. The boy finally arrived at school.
15. Einstein was exceptionally brilliant.
16. Pauline is very clever.
17. Now we will quickly check our answers.

Forming Adverbs from Adjectives.

Many adverbs are formed by adding “ly” to the adjective. If the adjective ends in “y” then the “y” is changed to “i” before adding “ly”.
Adjective Adverb
Real Really
Loud Loudly
Quick Quickly
Nice Nicely
Careful Carefully
Speedy Speedily
Angry Angrily
Steady Steadily

Exercise:
Rewrite the following sentences with the adjective, shown in bold, changed to an adverb.
Sentence with adjectiveSentence with adverb
1. Mary sat in a quiet way. Mary sat ………………….
2. Julia sang a sweet song. Julia sang ………………….
3. They were eager participants. They participated ……………..
4. Josh was a quick runner. Josh ran ……………..
5. His slip was accidental. He slipped ………………….
6. It is usual for the door to be locked. The door is …………… locked.
7. Martin spoke in an honest manner. Martin spoke ……………
8. He found it painful to walk. He walked ……………….
9. He made a hasty decision. His decision was made …………
10. She swam in a lazy manner. She swam ……………..

Answers:
1. Mary sat in a quiet way. Mary sat quietly.
2. Julia sang a sweet song. Julia sang sweetly.
3. They were eager participants. They participated eagerly.
4. Josh was a quick runner. Josh ran quickly.
5. His slip was accidental. He slipped accidentally.
6. It is usual for the door to be locked. The door is usually locked.
7. Martin spoke in an honest manner. Martin spoke honestly.
8. He found it painful to walk. He walked painfully.
9. He made a hasty decision. His decision was made hastily.
10. She swam in a lazy manner. She swam lazily.

Prepositions

Prepositions show a relationship between one person or object and another. The most common prepositions provide links of time or position. A preposition is always followed by a noun, pronoun or verb.
Sometimes the subject is understood and not actually used in the sentence.
e.g. (you) “Wait near the fence.” The link between you and the fence is understood.
A sentence should never end with a preposition.
e.g.
He told me the news before dinner. The book is on the table.
He told me the news during dinner. The book is beside the table.
He told me the news after dinner. The book is under the table.
Some prepositions resemble adverbs.
Consider the sentence “I went outside and ran around.” Here “around” is used as an adverb to modify the verb “ran”.
Compare this to the sentence “I went outside and ran around the yard.” Here “around” is used as a preposition. A preposition is always followed by a noun, pronoun or verb.

Occasionally two prepositions are used together.
e.g. Thomas walked up over the hill.
Barbara waited down by the river.

Exercise: Underline the prepositions in each of the following sentences.
1. Sandra put a lid on the saucepan.
2. Jason threw the ball towards the wall.
3. Maria held an umbrella above her head.
4. Surfers should swim between the flags.
5. Janet threw more vegetables into the pot.
6. Everyone went to the show except Bobby.
7. The student slept throughout the lesson.
8. Jordon hid from David inside the shed.
9. Go down the road and around the corner.
10. Harry bought a pie with sauce.
11. We sat beneath the branches of a large tree.
12. Ursula had to play outside the house until dinner time.

Answers:
1. Sandra put a lid on the saucepan.
2. Jason threw the ball towards the wall.
3. Maria held an umbrella above her head.
4. Surfers should swim between the flags.
5. Janet threw more vegetables into the pot.
6. Everyone went to the show except Bobby.
7. The student slept throughout the lesson.
8. Jordon hid from David inside the shed.
9. Go down the road and around the corner.
10. Harry bought a pie with sauce.
11. We sat beneath the branches of a large tree.
12. Ursula had to play outside the house until dinner time.

Homonyms: (same word – different meaning)

Homonyms (also known as homophones) are words that are identical in pronunciation and spelling but have different meanings.
They can be nouns, adjectives or verbs. The context gives their meaning.
e.g. post.
I’m going up the road to post a letter. Post (verb); to send by mail
The letter box was attached to a post near the front gate. Post (noun); upright, strong piece of timber or metal.
He held the post of District Manager. Post (noun); position of employment or duty to which someone is appointed.

Exercise: Write sentences containing the following homonyms:

1.a. Left: (adjective) When facing North, the direction towards the west is left.

...............................................................................................................................................................
1.b. Left: (verb) The past tense of leave is left.

...............................................................................................................................................................
2.a. Free: (adjective) No Charge

...............................................................................................................................................................
2.b. Free: (verb) To liberate

...............................................................................................................................................................
3.a. Scale: (noun) A proportional representation.

...............................................................................................................................................................
3.b. Scale: (verb) To climb.

...............................................................................................................................................................
4.a. Dock: (noun) A wharf.

...............................................................................................................................................................
4.b. Dock: (verb) To deduct a part.

...............................................................................................................................................................
5.a. Second: (adjective) The place after first.

...............................................................................................................................................................
5.b. Second: (noun) A short period of time.

...............................................................................................................................................................
6.a. File: (noun) A tool for smoothing or cutting.

...............................................................................................................................................................
6.b. File: (noun) An orderly, labelled group of documents.

...............................................................................................................................................................

Homonyms: (same word – different meaning)_ _ _ _ Answers

Homonyms (also known as homophones) are words that are identical in pronunciation and spelling but have different meanings.
They can be nouns, adjectives or verbs. The context gives their meaning.
e.g. post.
I’m going up the road to post a letter. Post (verb); to send by mail
The letter box was attached to a post near the front gate. Post (noun); upright, strong piece of timber or metal.
He held the post of District Manager. Post (noun); position of employment or duty to which someone is appointed.

Exercise: Write sentences containing the following homonyms:
Answers will vary but here are some suggestions.

1.a. Left: (adjective) When facing North, the direction towards the west is left.
I wear my watch on my left wrist.
1.b. Left: (verb) The past tense of leave is left.
She left home early this morning.

2.a. Free: (adjective) No Charge
The club offered a free bus to patrons.
2.b. Free: (verb) To liberate
He wanted to free the caged parrot.

3.a. Scale: (noun) A proportional representation.
The architect presented a scale model of the new town hall.
3.b. Scale: (verb) To climb.
He was determined to scale Mount Everest before he died.

4.a. Dock: (noun) A wharf.
The container ship unloaded at the dock.
4.b. Dock: (verb) To deduct a part.
The boss threatened to dock Mario’s pay if he was late to work.

5.a. Second: (adjective) The place after first.
George finished second in the swimming race.
5.b. Second: (noun) A short period of time.
It takes less than a second to say “thank you”.

6.a. File: (noun) A tool for smoothing or cutting.
Charlie used a file to smooth the rough edges on the freshly-cut metal.
6.b. File: (noun) An orderly, labelled group of documents.
The councillor asked for the file on the new housing estate.

Homophones: (same sound – different spelling, different meaning)

These are words that are pronounced the same way, but have different spellings and different meanings.
e.g. stationery/stationary
Mary used nice stationery to write a letter to her mother.
Stationery: (noun) Writing materials such as paper, envelopes, pens.
The car was stationary at the side of the road.
Stationary: (adjective) Not moving.

Exercise: Write sentences containing the following homophones:

1.a. Right: (adjective) When facing North, the direction towards the east is right.

...............................................................................................................................................................
1.b. Write: (verb) to express a message by words produced on paper or other surface.

...............................................................................................................................................................
2.a. Road: (noun) A pathway or thoroughfare for vehicles and people.

...............................................................................................................................................................
2.b. Rode: (verb) Past tense of ride; travelled in or on an animal, vehicle or similar.

...............................................................................................................................................................
3.a. Muscle: (noun) A bundle of animal fibres that can produce movement.

...............................................................................................................................................................
3.b. Mussel: (noun) An edible mollusc.

...............................................................................................................................................................
4.a. Doe: (noun) A female deer, antelope or similar animal .

...............................................................................................................................................................
4.b. Dough: (noun) The uncooked mixture for bread or a cake.

...............................................................................................................................................................
5.a. Foul: (adjective) Offensive to the senses.

...............................................................................................................................................................
5.b. Fowl: (noun) Domestic bird, usually kept for eggs or eating.

...............................................................................................................................................................
6.a. Cent: (noun) Money; 100 cents to the dollar.

................................................................................................................................................................
6.b. Scent: (noun) A smell or odour.

................................................................................................................................................................

Homophones: (same sound – different spelling, different meaning) _ _ _ Answers:

These are words that are pronounced the same way, but have different spellings and different meanings.
e.g. stationery/stationary
Mary used nice stationery to write a letter to her mother.
Stationery: (noun) Writing materials such as paper, envelopes, pens.
The car was stationary at the side of the road.
Stationary: (adjective) Not moving.

Exercise: Write sentences containing the following homophones:

Answers will vary but here are some suggestions.

1.a. Right: (adjective) When facing North, the direction towards the east is right.
When setting the table, the knife should be placed on the right.
1.b. Write: (verb) to express a message by words produced on paper or other surface.
I will write a letter to Josephine after dinner.

2.a. Road: (noun) A pathway or thoroughfare for vehicles and people.
The road to the Blue Mountains is narrow and winding in several places.
2.b. Rode: (verb) Past tense of ride; travelled in or on an animal, vehicle or similar.
The queen rode in the back seat of the Rolls Royce.

3.a. Muscle: (noun) A bundle of animal fibres that can produce movement.
He was so tired he could hardly move a muscle.
3.b. Mussel: (noun) An edible mollusc.
Lou prefers a mussel to an oyster.

4.a. Doe: (noun) A female deer, antelope or similar animal .
Stephanie was hoping that the baby deer would be a doe and not a buck.
4.b. Dough: (noun) The uncooked mixture for bread or a cake.
The baker let the bread dough rise for three hours before cooking it.

5.a. Foul: (adjective) Offensive to the senses.
The rotting meat smelt foul.
5.b. Fowl: (noun) Domestic bird, usually kept for eggs or eating.
Tony boasted that his prize rooster was an amazing fowl.

6.a. Cent: (noun) Money; 100 cents to the dollar.
One percent is just one cent in the dollar.
6.b. Scent: (noun) A smell or odour.
The dog sniffed the ground to detect the scent of other dogs.

Clauses and Phrases

A phrase is a group of words expressing a single idea but without a subject or a verb e.g. in the bin, down the road, on the shelf.

A clause is a group of words containing a verb and its subject.

A simple sentence consists of one clause only e.g. Evelyn watched television.

A compound sentence has two or more clauses that can stand independently, each joined by one of the coordinating conjunctions; and, but, for, nor, or, yet, so
e.g. Ben worked in the yard and Sylvia cleaned the house.
“Ben worked in the yard.” is a simple sentence and so is “Sylvia cleaned the house.”

A complex sentence has a principal clause that makes sense by itself and a subordinate clause that relies on the principal clause to make sense. e.g. Having eaten her dinner, Evelyn watched television.
“Evelyn watched television” is the principal clause because it can stand alone as a sentence. “Having eaten her dinner” makes no sense by itself but in the complex sentence tells us when Evelyn watched television. It is the subordinate clause.

Exercise: State whether the highlighted parts of the following sentences are a phrase or a clause.

1. Percy went to the shop around the corner. ………………..
2. Mum and I played cards after dinner. ………………..
3. Two plus two, as we all know, equals four. ………………..
4. Bert drove to the shops after cleaning the car. ………………..
5. My father was standing at the bus stop. ………………..
6. Robin owns the car that is in the driveway. ………………..
7. He had worked in the mine all day and was exhausted. ………………..
8. There was her husband, holding a bunch of flowers. ………………...
9. Stephanie found a beautiful flower among the weeds. ...........................
10. He was looking for a man wearing a blue suit. ………………...

Answers:
1. Percy went to the shop around the corner. Phrase
2. Mum and I played cards after dinner. Phrase
3. Two plus two, as we all know, equals four. Clause
4. Bert drove to the shops after cleaning the car. Clause
5. My father was standing at the bus stop. Phrase
6. Robin owns the car that is in the driveway. Clause
7. He had worked in the mine all day and was exhausted. Clause
8. There was her husband, holding a bunch of flowers. Clause
9. Stephanie found a beautiful flower among the weeds. Phrase
10. He was looking for a man wearing a blue suit. Clause

Compound Sentences

Exercise 1: Place the coordinating conjunctions; and, but, for, nor, or, yet, so in the appropriate boxes in the table below.
Description     Conjunction    
Hence, therefore 
Contrasting opinion  
By reason of  
Joins negative statements 
Adds two ideas  
Shows alternative 
Nevertheless 

Exercise2: Use suitable conjunctions to turn the following pairs of simple sentences into compound sentences.

1. I would like to buy a new car.   I can’t afford one.
2. Sam has an exam tomorrow.   He will have to study tonight.
3. Tom dropped his computer.   He will have to buy a new one.
4. Jerry went to the movies.   I went to the beach.
5. Shakespeare wrote plays.   Van Gough was an artist.
6. The house was neat.   The yard was untidy.
7. Would you like to watch a movie?  Do you want to read your book?
8. Emily swept the floor.   Wendy cleaned the windows.
9. Mia left her car at the station.   She caught a train to work.
10. The house was very expensive.  It is a long way from the city.

Answers 1:
Description Conjunction
Hence, therefore So
Contrasting opinion But
By reason of For
Joins negative statements Nor
Adds two ideas And
Shows alternative Or
Nevertheless Yet

Answers 2:
1. I would like to buy a new car but I can’t afford one.
2. Sam has an exam tomorrow so he will have to study tonight.
3. Tom dropped his computer so he will have to buy a new one.
4. Jerry went to the movies and I went to the beach.
5. Shakespeare wrote plays and Van Gough was an artist.
6. The house was neat but the yard was untidy.
7. Would you like to watch a movie or do you want to read your book?
8. Emily swept the floor and Wendy cleaned the windows.
9. Mia left her car at the station and she caught a train to work.
10. The house was very expensive yet it is a long way from the city.

Complex Sentences

A complex sentence has a principal clause that makes sense by itself and a dependent or subordinate clause that relies on the principal clause to make sense. e.g. Stephen went inside when it began to rain.
“Stephen went inside” is the principal clause because it can stand alone as a sentence. “when it began to rain” makes no sense by itself but in the complex sentence tells us when Stephen went inside. It is the subordinate clause.

Exercise 1: Underline the principal clause in each of the following complex sentences.
1. If I have enough money I will go to the concert.
2. The exam, as far as I know, is next week.
3. Frank Sinatra was a singer whose music I like.
4. Buckingham Palace, which is in England, is a magnificent building.
5. Since Morgan is coming over we will have a fourth for bridge.
6. Before she eats her dinner, Izabella will do her homework.
7. These are the boys who are in the choir.
8. The van, that could carry two tonnes, cost $90 per day.
9. Alex went to school on Tuesday although he was late.
10. Phoebe bought a computer that cost a fortune.

Exercise 2: Change the following compound sentences to complex sentences.
1. There were not enough chairs so I had to stand.

..............................................................................................................................
2. I went to the Easter Show but I had little money to spend.

..............................................................................................................................
Answers 1:
1. If I have enough money I will go to the concert.
2. The exam, as far as I know, is next week.
3. Frank Sinatra was a singer whose music I like. 4. Buckingham Palace, which is in England, is a magnificent building.
5. Since Morgan is coming over we will have a fourth for bridge.
6. Before she eats her dinner, Izabella will do her homework.
7. These are the boys who are in the choir.
8. The van, that could carry two tonnes, cost $90 per day.
9. Alex went to school on Tuesday although he was late.
10. Phoebe bought a computer that cost a fortune.

Answers 2: The answers will vary but here are some suggestions:
1. There were not enough chairs so I had to stand.
As there were not enough chairs, I had to stand.
2. I went to the Easter Show but I had little money to spend.
Although I had little money to spend, I went to the Easter Show.

Antonyms

Antonyms are pairs of adjectives or adverbs that mean the opposite to each other. e.g. best and worst, left and right, high and low.
Exercise: Write the antonyms of the following words.
Word Antonym Word Antonym Word Antonym
Before   Visible   Plus 
Always   Early   Thaw 
Above   Close   Whisper  
Inside   Strong   Bottom 
Down   Singular   Male 
Near   Loose   Impossible  
Later   Disallowed   Starboard 
Legal   Tender   Unusual 
Probable  Most  Rich 
Then   Few   Even 
Forward   Thick   Trash 
Bad   Insane   Less 
Agree   Wide   False  
No   Untidy   Lose  
Clean   Sad   Impatient 
Illogical   Cheap   Unfair  
Remember   Formal   Vague 
Short   War   Loudly 
Follow   Start   Whole  

Answers:

Word Antonym Word Antonym Word Antonym
Before After Visible Invisible Plus Minus
Always Never Early Late Thaw Freeze
Above Below Close Open Whisper Shout
Inside Outside Strong Weak Bottom Top
Down Up Singular Plural Male Female
Near Far Loose Tight Impossible Possible
Later Sooner Disallowed Allowed Starboard Port
Legal Illegal Tender Tough Unusual Usual
Probable Improbable Most Least Rich Poor
Then Now Few Many Even Odd
ForwardBack Thick Thin Trash Treasure
Bad Good Insane Sane Less More
Agree Disagree Wide Narrow False True
No Yes Untidy Tidy Lose Win
Clean Dirty Sad Happy Impatient Patient
Illogical Logical Cheap Expensive Unfair Fair
Remember Forget Formal Informal Vague Clear
Short Long War Peace Loudly Quietly
Follow Lead Start Finish Whole Part

Synonyms

Synonyms are pairs of words that have similar meanings such as smart and clever, external and outside or more and extra.

Exercise: Insert the following words as synonyms in the appropriate spaces in the table below. You may use your dictionary.
Words:
Jump, Dire, Top, Digress, Upright, Entertain, Slow, Weep, Linger, Tiredness, Make, Equivalent, Earlier, Nonsense, Flat, Prompt, Increase, Arms, Main, Throw, Ostentatious, Punish, Foam, Hire, Careless, Predict, Clear, Mild, Deceive, Position, Intelligence, Lazy, Plant, Complain, Turn, Coffin, Loose, Wise, Mistake, Capture, Hole, Hit.

Word Synonym Word Synonym Word Synonym
Synonymous   Vertical   Absurdity 
Wisdom   Mislead   Error  
Deviate   Awful   Level  
Casket   Prudent   Slack 
Lucid   Create   Leap 
Summit   Rotate   Forecast 
Quick   Gentle   Chastise 
Aperture   Wait  Strike  
Prior   Toss  Amuse  
Fatigue   Cry   Rank  
Weapons   Protest   Sluggish 
Seize   Rent  Sow  
Lax   Augment   Pretentious  
Idle   Principal   Froth  

Answers:

Word Synonym Word Synonym Word Synonym
Synonymous Equivalent Vertical Upright Absurdity Nonsense
Wisdom Intelligence Mislead Deceive Error Mistake
Deviate Digress Awful Dire Level Flat
Casket Coffin Prudent Wise Slack Loose
Lucid Clear Create Make Leap Jump
Summit Top Rotate Turn Forecast Predict
Quick Prompt Gentle Mild Chastise Punish
Aperture Hole Wait Linger Strike Hit
Prior Earlier Toss Throw Amuse Entertain
Fatigue Tiredness Cry Weep Rank Position
Weapons Arms ProtestComplain Sluggish Slow
Seize Capture Rent Hire Sow Plant
Lax Careless Augment Increase Pretentious Ostentatious
Idle Lazy Principal Main Froth Foam

Punctuation

CAPITAL (upper case) letters :
• A capital letter is used at the start of a sentence. E.g. My foot is sore.
• A capital is used for the first letter of proper nouns. Remember that proper nouns are names of people, places, animals, days and months. E.g. Jenny will meet Cynthia in Newcastle on Tuesday.
• The first person I is always a capital. E.g. Pam and I will go to the movies to see “The King and I”.
• For abbreviations involving the first letter of each word. E.g. NSW for New South Wales, DVD for digital versatile disc, TAFE for Technical And Further Education.
• For the first letter after the prefix of some family names. E.g. O’Brian, McTavish, DeVries.

Full stop. (period) :
• A full stop is used at the end of a sentence that is either a statement or a command. E.g. This is a sentence. Obey this command.
• Full stops are used after abbreviations involving the first few letters of a word. E.g. ref. = reference, trad. = traditional, pl. = plural

Question mark? :
• Question marks are used at the end of a question. E.g. Why do they use question marks at the end of a question?

Exclamation mark! :
• An exclamation mark is used to signify a sudden cry of surprise or strong emotion. E.g. Good heavens! Ouch! Oh no!


• Commas are used to separate words in a list. E.g. You will need a pen, pencil, eraser, ruler and pencil-sharpener.
• Commas separate a beginning phrase or clause from the rest of the sentence. E.g. After the movie, we went to the restaurant for dinner.
• Commas are used to separate an embedded phrase or clause from the rest of the sentence. E.g. My cousin Jill, who lives in Tamworth, will be visiting me next week.

Apostrophe’ :
• Apostrophes are used to show possession. E.g. The cat’s paw, The players’ change room, Bob’s car. Apostrophes are not used with personal pronouns such as the cat licked its paw.
• Apostrophes are used to show contractions where two words are merged into one. E.g. did not/didn’t, I have/I’ve, it is or it has/it’s
• Apostrophes are used to contract a noun with the verb “is”. e.g. Dinner’s ready, your plate’s on the table and Dad’s coming.

“Quotation marks” (inverted commas) :
• Quotation marks are used to enclose the exact words of what has been said or written. Where there is more than one speaker, each speaker is quoted on a separate line. E.g.
“Who has been eating my porridge?” cried Father Bear.
“Who has been eating my porridge?” cried Mother Bear.
“Who has been eating my porridge?” cried Baby Bear “and it’s all gone.
• In cases where a quotation or title is used within a quotation, single inverted commas are used around the inner quotation. E.g. “ The book ‘War and Peace’ is very long”, said Trevor.

Hyphen- :
• A hyphen is used to split compound words such as non-starter, three-quarters, semi-detached, pocket-watch, full-time, hair-raising, half-brother, middle-aged, merry-go-round and half-life.
• A hyphen is used between syllables of long words where the word runs onto the next line.

Colon: :
• A colon is used at the beginning of a list e.g Things to bring:
• A colon is used after the character’s name to indicate their lines in a script e.g. Dad: What do you think of the weather, son? Dave: I think it will be a fine day if it doesn’t rain.

Semicolon; :
• A semicolon can be used to join two linked statements; it is more distinct than a comma. e.g. I like watermelons; Emerald prefers rockmelons.

Quotation marks.
Exercise: Insert quotation marks into the following sentences where appropriate:
1. It is time for lunch, said Lyn.
2. The drama group will perform Hamlet in the school hall.
3. I’m tired, said Tom so I am going to go home.
4. Barney said I read the book Treasure Island, but I didn’t enjoy it.
5. Amelia asked if anyone had read Mulga Bill’s Bicycle by Banjo Patterson.
6. Who called out? asked the teacher.
7. May I borrow your hammer? asked Joe. Certainly not, replied Bill.

Answers:
1. “It is time for lunch,” said Lyn.
2. The drama group will perform “Hamlet” in the school hall.
3. “I’m tired,” said Tom “so I am going to go home.”
4. Barney said “I read the book ‘Treasure Island’, but I didn’t enjoy it.”
5. Amelia asked if anyone had read “Mulga Bill’s Bicycle” by Banjo Patterson.
6. “Who called out?” asked the teacher.
7. “May I borrow your hammer?” asked Joe.
“Certainly not,” replied Bill.

Capital letters
Exercise: Rewrite the following sentences using capital letters as required.
1. this year anzac day falls on a wednesday.

....................................................................................................................................
2. miriam told belinda that she should get a new aerial for her tv.

....................................................................................................................................
3. on tuesday we are going to the beach at manly.

....................................................................................................................................
4. “i preferred the book ‘jaws’ to the movie”, said jane.

....................................................................................................................................
5. the mayor, mr a b whatsisname, opened the new scout hall in george st.

....................................................................................................................................
6. christmas day always falls on the 25th of december but the date for easter varies.

....................................................................................................................................
7. i am going to the rsl club tonight with bob and shirley.

....................................................................................................................................
8. my daughter, teresa, moved from nsw to the act.

....................................................................................................................................
9. the poem “said hanrahan” was written by patrick hartigan who used the pen name john o’brien.

....................................................................................................................................
10. philip and i caught a train to kiama to visit the blow hole.

....................................................................................................................................

Answers:
1. This year Anzac day falls on a Wednesday.
2. Miriam told Belinda that she should get a new aerial for her TV.
3. On Tuesday we are going to the beach at Manly.
4. “I preferred the book ‘Jaws’ to the movie”, said Jane.
5. The mayor, Mr A B Whatsisname, opened the new scout hall in George St.
6. Christmas Day always falls on the 25th of December but the date for Easter varies.
7. I am going to the RSL club tonight with Bob and Shirley.
8. My daughter, Teresa, moved from NSW to the ACT.
9. The poem “Said Hanrahan” was written by Patrick Hartigan who used the pen name John O’Brien.
10. Philip and I caught a train to Kiama to visit the Blow Hole.
Back to Migrant English Worksheets
Back to Start